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TECHNICAL GUIDE
FAQs
  1. What are the salient differences between Copper and Aluminum conductor?
  2. Do solid conductors have better conductivity than the stranded ones?
  3. What is the importance of insulation in wires and cables?
  4. What are to be considered in selecting wires and cables?
  5. How to properly specify an order for wires and cables?
  6. What are the commonly used lighting and fixtures wire for residential, commercial,
    and industrial installation?
  7. What is the importance of colored insulation?
  8. What type of wire is used for extension purposes?
  9. What is the recommended wire for outdoor wiring?
  10. What are the general characteristics of a safe wire?

1. What are the salient differences between Copper and Aluminum conductor?

Copper is the commonly used conductor. It has higher conductivity and heavier compared to Aluminum, and usually costs more. Although Aluminum has lower cost, greater size or cables of Aluminum is needed to match the conductivity offered by copper. Either way the cost offsets.

 

2. Do solid conductors have better conductivity than the stranded ones?

Yes to a certain extent, although the variation is considered to be negligible.
The choice would depend on the level of flexibility needed in the application of wires and cables. Stranded conductors are more flexible and are more preferred when applied to winding installation. Due to its lower flexibility, solid conductors are usually produced in smaller sizes, e.g. 8 AWG sizes and lower.

 

3. What is the importance of insulation in wires and cables?

The electrical properties of the wires are significantly influenced by the insulation. High-frequency communication cables, for example, would have Polyethylene (PE) as insulation because the capacitance and attenuation are minimal if this type of thermoplastic were used. On top of the wire and cable application, factors such us heat and flame resistance; moisture resistance; mechanical toughness; resistance to ionization; flexibility; and the usage life determine the insulation. The other insulation can be XLPE (chemically cross-linked PE Compound), Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), and Ethylene-Propylene (EP) Rubber.

 

4. What are to be considered in selecting wires and cables?

In selecting a wire, the following should be considered:

Installation - the area of installation whether indoor, underground, outdoor or aerial is critical in the choice of wire because the exposures to various elements may affect the performance and safety of the wire. This is where the characteristics of insulation play an important part.

Voltage Rating - determines the size of the conductor, and the thickness and type of insulation.

Conductor Size – the current load, KVA load, and kilowatt load are governed by voltage drop besides the heating and power factors. These must be known before the conductor size can be determined.

Ampacity Limitation– the maximum current a wire or cable can safely carry without exceeding the capacity of the insulation or jacketed material.

External Condition - the presence of other sources of heat located in the installation, such as pipes, corrosive agents, structural materials, and other cables can cause increase in the temperature of wire.

 

5. How to properly specify an order for wires and cables?

In ordering wires and cables, the following should be specified:

Type of Wire
Size
Number of Conductor (for Multicore)
Voltage Rating
Type of Insulation
Insulation thickness (Insulation Level for Power Cable)
Type of Protective Covering
Type of Conductor

a.) Copper/Aluminum
b.) Solid or Stranded

Total length/individual cutting length

 

6. What are the commonly used lighting and fixtures wire for residential, commercial, and industrial installation?

TW, THW, THHN/THWN wires are most commonly used for lighting and fixture purposes.

 

7. What is the importance of colored insulation?

The color of the insulation serves as a guide in circuit indentification and for easy wiring connection.

 

8. What type of wire is used for extension purposes?

Duracord and Duplex Cord (SPT) are used for extension purposes.

 

9. What is the recommended wire for outdoor wiring?

For outdoor wiring, use PE insulated wire because of its weather-resistant characteristics. On the other hand, it is recommended to use PVC insulated wire for its flame retardant properties for indoor wiring.

 

10. What are the general characteristics of a safe wire?

A safe wire must have the following characteristics:

  • Right conductor size
  • Proper thickness of insulation
  • Virgin copper with 99.9% conductivity for copper wiring
  • Pure plastic insulation
  • Must have passed stringent quality control

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Wire Specification

 

THERMOPLASTIC WIRE (TW) , 600 VOLTS, 60C

Size of Conductor
No. & Nominal Dia. of Wire
Wall Thickness
Approximate Overall Diameter
Ampacity
60 C
Nominal Weight
Standard Length
MM Size
Approximate
AWG Size
 
MM
MM
 
KG/KM
 
Solid
 
1.6 mm
14
  0.80 3.2 20 26.63 150 m
2.0 mm
12
  0.80 3.6 25 38.13 150 m
2.6 mm
10
  1.00 4.6 30 63.60 150 m
3.2 mm
8
  1.20 5.6 40 95.54 150 m
Stranded
 
2.0 mm2
14
7 x 0.60 mm 0.80 3.4 20 27.97 150 m
3.5 mm2
12
7 x 0.80 mm 0.80 4.0 25 44.57 150 m
5.5 mm2
10
7 x 1.00 mm 1.00 5.0 30 69.63 150 m
8.0 mm2
8
7 x 1.20 mm 1.20 6.0 40 100.23 150 m
14 mm2
6
7 x 1.60 mm 1.60 8.0 55 178.33 150 m
22 mm2
4
7 x 2.00 mm 1.60 9.2 70 261.08 150 m
30 mm2
2
7 x 2.30 mm 1.60 10.1 95 333.95 150 m
38 mm2 1-19 19 x 1.60 mm 2.00 12.0 110 450.69 300 m
50 mm2 1/0-19 19 x 1.80 mm 2.00 13.0 125 547.31 300 m
60 mm2 2/0-19 19 x 2.00 mm 2.00 14.0 145 661.13 300 m
80 mm2 3/0-19 19 x 2.30 mm 2.00 15.5 165 852.87 300 m
100 mm2 4/0-19 19 x 2.60 mm 2.00 17.0 195 1069.28 300 m
125 mm2 250 MCM 37 x 2.10 mm 2.40 19.5 215 1369.56 300 m
150 mm2 300 MCM 37 x 2.30 mm 2.40 20.9 240 1621.78 300 m
  350 MCM 37 x 2.47 mm 2.40 22.1 260 1849.46 300 m
200 mm2 400 MCM 37 x 2.60 mm 2.40 23.0 280 2038.94 300 m
250 mm2 500 MCM 61 x 2.30 mm 2.40 25.5 320 2601.35 300 m
  600 MCM 61 x 2.52 mm 2.40 27.5 355 3085.23 300 m
325 mm2 650 MCM 61 x 2.60 mm 2.80 29.0 370 3327.30 300 m
  750 MCM 61 x 2.82 mm 2.80 30.9 400 3874.02 300 m
400 mm2 800 MCM 61 x 2.90 mm 2.80 31.7 410 4092.44 300 m
500 mm2 1000 MCM 61 x 3.20 mm 2.80 34.4 455 4936.07 300 m
 

THERMOPLASTIC HEAT- AND MOISTURE- RESISTANT WIRE (THW), 600 VOLTS, 75 C

Size of Conductor
No. & Nominal
Dia. of Wire
Wall Thickness
Approximate Overall Diameter
Ampacity
75 C
Nominal Weight

Standard
Length

MM Size
Approximate AWG Size
 
MM
MM
 
KG/KM
 
Solid
    
1.6 mm
14
  1.20 4.0 20 32.66 150 m
2.0 mm
12
  1.20 4.4 25 44.82 150 m
2.6 mm
10
  1.20 5.0 35 67.27 150 m
3.2 mm
8
  1.60 6.4 50 105.27 150 m
Stranded
    
2.0 mm2
14
7 x 0.60 mm 1.20 4.2 20 34.31 150 m
3.5 mm2
12
7 x 0.80 mm 1.20 4.8 25 51.86 150 m
5.5 mm2
10
7 x 1.00 mm 1.20 5.4 35 73.51 150 m
8.0 mm2
8
7 x 1.20 mm 1.60 6.8 50 110.49 150 m
14 mm2
6
7 x 1.60 mm 1.60 8.0 65 176.55 150 m
22 mm2
4
7 x 2.00 mm 1.60 9.2 85 258.98 150 m
30 mm2
2
7 x 2.30 mm 1.60 10.1 115 331.46 150 m
38 mm2 1-19 19 x 1.60 mm 2.00 12.0 130 447.00 300 m
50 mm2 1/0-19 19 x 1.80 mm 2.00 13.0 150 543.44 300 m
60 mm2 2/0-19 19 x 2.00 mm 2.00 14.0 175 656.85 300 m
80 mm2 3/0-19 19 x 2.30 mm 2.00 15.5 200 847.90 300 m
100 mm2 4/0-19 19 x 2.60 mm 2.00 17.0 230 1063.71 300 m
125 mm2 250 MCM 37 x 2.10 mm 2.40 19.5 255 1362.26 300 m
150 mm2 300 MCM 37 x 2.30 mm 2.40 20.9 285 1613.79 300 m
  350 MCM 37 x 2.47 mm 2.40 22.1 310 1840.86 300 m
200 mm2 400 MCM 37 x 2.60 mm 2.40 23.0 335 2029.87 300 m
250 mm2 500 MCM 61 x 2.30 mm 2.40 25.5 380 2590.95 300 m
  600 MCM 61 x 2.52 mm 2.40 27.5 420 3073.95 300 m
325 mm2 650 MCM 61 x 2.60 mm 2.80 29.0 435 3288.51 300 m
  750 MCM 61 x 2.82 mm 2.80 30.9 475 3859.40 300 m
400 mm2 800 MCM 61 x 2.90 mm 2.80 31.7 490 4077.32 300 m
500 mm2 1000 MCM 61 x 3.20 mm 2.80 34.4 545 4919.24 300 m
 

THERMOPLASTIC HEAT- AND MOISTURE- RESISTANT WIRE WITH
NYLON JACKET (THHN/THWN), 600 VOLTS, 90 C

Size of Conductor
No. & Nominal Dia. of Wire
Wall Thickness
Approximate Overall Diameter
Ampacity
Nominal Weight
Standard Length
MM Size
Approximate AWG Size
 
MM
MM
75 C
90 C
KG/KM
 
Solid
 
PVC
Nylon
 
WET
DRY
 
 
1.6 mm
14
  0.40 0.10 2.60 20 25
22.52
150 m
2.0 mm
12
  0.40 0.10 3.00 25 30
33.46
150 m
2.6 mm
10
  0.50 0.10 3.80 35 40
55.70
150 m
3.2 mm
8
  0.80 0.13 5.06 50 55
88.40
150 m
Stranded
 
2.0 mm2
14
7 x 0.60 mm 0.40 0.10 2.80 20 25
23.57
150 m
3.5 mm2
12
7 x 0.80 mm 0.40 0.10 3.40 25 30
39.29
150 m
5.5 mm2
10
7 x 1.00 mm 0.50 0.10 4.20 35 40
60.93
150 m
8.0 mm2
8
7 x 1.20 mm 0.80 0.13 5.46 50 55
92.49
150 m
14 mm2
6
7 x 1.60 mm 0.80 0.13 6.66 65 75
155.06
150 m
22 mm2
4
7 x 2.00 mm 1.00 0.15 8.30 85 95
241.69
150 m
30 mm2
2
7 x 2.30 mm 1.00 0.15 9.20 115 130
312.50
150 m
38 mm2 1-19 19 x 1.60 mm 1.30 0.18 10.96 130 150
400.37
300 m
50 mm2 1/0-19 19 x 1.80 mm 1.30 0.18 11.96 150 170
514.96
300 m
60 mm2 2/0-19 19 x 2.00 mm 1.30 0.18 12.96 175 195
626.12
300 m
80 mm2 3/0-19 19 x 2.30 mm 1.30 0.18 14.46 200 225
813.86
300 m
100 mm2 4/0-19 19 x 2.60 mm 1.30 0.18 15.96 230 260
1026.25
300 m
125 mm2 250 MCM 37 x 2.10 mm 1.60 0.18 18.26 255 290
1313.25
300 m
150 mm2 300 MCM 37 x 2.30 mm 1.60 0.20 19.70 285 320
1561.19
300 m
  350 MCM 37 x 2.47 mm 1.60 0.20 20.89 310 350
1782.98
300 m
200 mm2 400 MCM 37 x 2.60 mm 1.60 0.20 21.80 335 380
1971.93
300 m
250 mm2 500 MCM 61 x 2.30 mm 1.60 0.20 24.30 380 430
2526.66
300 m
325 mm2 650 MCM 61 x 2.60 mm 1.80 0.23 27.46 435 470
3219.48
300 m
400 mm2 800 MCM 61 x 2.90 mm 1.80 0.23 30.16 490 555
3974.06
300 m
500 mm2 1000 MCM 61 x 3.20 mm 1.80 0.23 32.86 545 615
4807.12
300 m

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